Is Dettol toxic to cats?
Dettol is toxic to cats, the active ingredient is chloroxylenol, a phenol that is a common ingredient in antiseptics, creosote, germicides, cleaners, and disinfectants. Phenols are locally corrosive and cause necrosis of the skin, mucous membranes and esophagus, central nervous system stimulant and depressant, kidney and liver damage.
The major sites of metabolism are the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, liver and kidneys. Cats lack UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, including UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 necessary to metabolise phenols. Their accumulation in the liver and kidneys results in liver damage and renal tubular necrosis.
Clinical signs of Dettol toxicity
Clinical signs of phenol toxicity include necrosis of the cutaneous, oral and gastric ulceration, CNS stimulation including tremors, incoordination, cardiovascular depression, weakness, jaundice (yellow gums) and seizures.
What is Dettol?
Dettol is a popular antiseptic and disinfectant that is used to clean minor wounds as well as disinfect hard surfaces (floors, kitchen benches, bathrooms).
- Brand name: Dettol
- Manufacturer: Reckitt Benckiser
- Generic alternatives: Yes
- Toxicity: Toxic to cats
- Severity: Severe
- Toxic principle: Chloroxylenol (phenol)
How does Dettol poisoning occur?
Dettol toxicity can occur when a well-meaning cat owner applies it to the skin to treat a minor abrasion or if the cat comes into contact with a recently disinfected surface and licks his or her coat. Other modes of toxicity include absorption through the skin and inhalation.
One cat owner recounted her experience with Dettol toxicity when she used an all-in-one Dettol spray on her sofa.
What does Dettol look like?
The most widely known Dettol product is its antibacterial disinfectant which is a light brown (similar to tea without milk in it) until it is diluted with water when it turns milky white and has a tarry smell.
Other Dettol products:
- Antibacterial laundry sanitiser
- Multipurpose disinfectant spray
- Antibacterial disinfectant surface cleaning wipes
- Antibacterial handwash
- Fabric sanitiser
- Floor cleaning wipes
- Hand and surface antibacterial wipes
What to do if your cat has been exposed to Dettol
- Dermal: Remove the cat’s collar, wet the coat with warm water and apply glycerol, followed by liquid dish soap (Fairy Liquid, Dawn, Morning Fresh), rinse well. If you cannot safely bathe the cat, wrap it in a towel and immediately go to the vet.
- Oral: Administer demulcents (milk or eggs), which are substances that relieve irritation to the mucous membranes in the mouth by forming a protective film and transport the cat to the veterinarian.
- Ocular: Rinse the eyes with isothermic isotonic saline.
As soon as you have finished emergency treatment, take the cat straight to a veterinarian.
There is no specific antidote for phenol toxicity. Treatment is aimed at managing symptoms as well as flushing the toxin out of the body. This may include the following:
- Activated charcoal and saline cathartics to reduce further absorption
- Intravenous fluid therapy to help flush the toxin from the body
- Oxygen therapy for cats suffering breathing difficulty due to inhalation
Is Dettol an antiseptic or a disinfectant?
Dettol is both an antiseptic and a disinfectant. Antiseptics and disinfectants both kill microorganisms, but their uses differ. Antiseptics are applied to the body to clean skin wounds and prepare the skin for surgery, and disinfectants are used on non-living things such as litter trays, and countertops.
Other phenol containing products
Any product that turns white in water contains phenols. This includes Pine-o-Cleen and Pinesol.
Alternatives to Dettol in cat households
When used with care, household bleach can be used to disinfect the home.
Safe use of bleach includes physically cleaning the surface with hot water and detergent before disinfection as organic matter deactivates it. Where possible, remove cats to another part of the home while disinfecting. Always use cold water when diluting bleach and dilute at a rate of 1 part bleach to 32 parts water. Wipe the area with the bleach solution and allow to sit for ten minutes rinse thoroughly with clean water. Bleach can irritate the skin, airways and eyes, so always use it in a well-ventilated area and use household gloves.
Betadine (provolone-iodine) and its generic equivalents are safe to use on cats and humans to treat minor wounds and lacerations.