Cat-Friendly Homes

Cat-friendly homes

What is a cat-friendly home?

A cat-friendly home is a home which meets the physical, behavioural and emotional needs of the cat. It is not enough to adopt a cat and provide fresh food and water, they have emotional and physical needs too. We take a look at what is involved in providing a cat-friendly home.

Read moreCat-Friendly Homes

Why Do Cats Have Different Coloured Kittens?

Litter of kittens

Kittens come in a rainbow of colours and it can sometimes be confusing when a kitten is born to two parents who didn’t have the same coat colour, for example, two solid cats produce a pointed kitten or two black cats produce a grey kitten or two shorthaired cats produce a longhaired kitten.

It is not uncommon for a litter to contain kittens who are all different colours. This variation in colours and patterns comes down to several genes which determine how each kitten will look.

Read moreWhy Do Cats Have Different Coloured Kittens?

6 Reasons to Neuter a Cat

Six reasons to neuter a male cat

Reasons to neuter a cat at a glance 

  1. Prevents unwanted pregnancies
  2. Reduction or elimination of certain cancers
  3. Less risk of infectious disease
  4. Reduces roaming
  5. Less territorial fighting
  6. Reduces spraying behaviour


An entire male cat is known as a tomcat and unless the cat is a purebred who has been purchased specifically to breed with, he should be neutered (desexed) by the time he is six months old to prevent unwanted behaviours, unwanted litters and reduce the risk of disease and trauma.

Read more6 Reasons to Neuter a Cat

Amitriptyline For Cats

Amitriptyline for cats

At a glance


  • Drug Name: Amitriptyline HCI
  • Common names: Elavil, Amitrol, Endep, Levate, Laroxyl and Saroten
  • Drug Type: Tricyclic Behaviour Modifier, Antipruritic, Neuropathic Pain Modifier
  • Used For: Behaviour disorders, pruritis (itching), idiopathic cystitis, chronic neuropathic pain
  • Species: Humans, cats, dogs, birds
  • Administered: Tablet


What is amitriptyline?

Amitriptyline (am-e-trip’-ta-lean) is a prescription-only tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is sold under the brand names Elavil, Amitrol, Endep, Levate, Laroxyl and Saroten, it is used in both human and veterinary medicine.

Amitriptyline was discovered in 1960 and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in humans in 1961. The drug has not been approved by the FDA for use in cats but is commonly prescribed extra-label.

Amitriptyline is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.

Read moreAmitriptyline For Cats

Corneal Sequestrum in Cats

Corneal sequestrum in cats

What is corneal sequestrum?

Feline corneal sequestrum (FCS) is a common eye disease characterised by round or oval brown or black plaques (spots) on the cornea which are made up of necrotic (dead) corneal tissue. FCS is also known as feline corneal necrosis, corneal mummification, focal degeneration, corneal nigrum, keratitis nigra, primary necrotizing keratitis and chronic ulcerative keratitis.

Read moreCorneal Sequestrum in Cats

Why Do Cats Flop Down In Front Of You?

Why do cats flop at our feet?

Why do cats flop down in front of you?

Flopping at your feet is an effective way to elicit attention from you. We have two choices, step over the cat or respond to the cute ball of fluff at our feet. For most people, the flop is guaranteed to make a person react with attention and by responding to the cat, we are rewarding it with positive reinforcement.

The belly is one of the most vulnerable parts of the body, and cats instinctively know this. Several critical organs (kidneys, liver, pancreas) are located in the belly, therefore cats will only show their belly to people they trust, or when they are being submissive towards another cat. The submissive and vulnerable cat will have his or her ears pulled back and the limbs raised in defence. This is very different from the flop at the feet of a human companion.

Read moreWhy Do Cats Flop Down In Front Of You?

Cauliflower Ear in Cats

Cauliflower ear in cat

What is cauliflower ear?

Also known as a perichondral hematoma,  cauliflower ear is an irreversible deformity caused by the formation of scar tissue and contraction of the perichondrium which occurs after a separation of the ear cartilage from the underlying connective tissue.

The pinna is the outer part of the ear which acts as a funnel to direct sound further into the ear and is made up of three layers:

  • Cartilage plate: The innermost layer of the pinna which provides the shape and rigidity. Unlike other tissues, the cartilage lacks the ability to heal itself when damaged.
  • Perichondrium: A protective layer of connective tissue which provides the blood supply and nutrients to the cartilage. The underlying cartilage and the overlying skin are both firmly attached to the perichondrium.
  • Skin: The outermost layer of skin which is covered with short hairs on the outside.

As the cat scratches the ear or shakes the head (head shaking is more common in floppy-eared dogs), the perichondrium separates from the cartilage which creates a space. The perichondrium blood vessels rupture and blood pools in the pocket-forming a hematoma. This build-up of blood between the perichondrium and cartilage can interrupt the blood and oxygen supply to the cartilage causing necrosis.

The distortion of the pinna, which becomes hard and cauliflower-shaped (hence the name) is thought to be due to a combination of factors which include myofibroblastic contraction of the maturing granulation tissue, excess cartilaginous tissue (preexisting and newly formed), and the separated perichondrium retracts and acts as a bow string, gradually folding back the cartilage.

Read moreCauliflower Ear in Cats

Clavamox (Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid) For Cats

Clavamox for cats

Clavamox at a glance

Clavamox is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat certain bacterial infections in cats and other animals.

Uses: Skin and soft tissue infections including wounds, abscess, dermatitis, cellulitis, dental infections, and urinary tract infections.

Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and in rare cases allergic reactions.

About Clavamox

Clavamox (Zoitis) or Clavulox (Pfizer) are the brand names of a combination drug made up of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and is one of the most commonly prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics in veterinary medicine. The drug derived from penicillin and clavulanic acid a beta-lactam inhibitor and is used to treat bacterial infections in animals.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics are capable of acting on the two major bacteria groups, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Amoxicillin is a penicillin derived antibiotic developed by Beecham Research Laboratories, England in the 1960s and became commercially available in 1972.

Read moreClavamox (Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid) For Cats

Tomcat Jowls in Male Cats

Tomcat jowls on an entire male cat

What are tomcat jowls?

Also known as stud jowls, stud cheeks or shields, tomcat jowls are fleshy areas which develop in the cheeks of intact male cats due to the effects of the hormone testosterone. Tomcat jowls send a signal to other intact males as well as fertile females of their physical status and protect vulnerable neck area during territorial fighting (hence the name shields).

Read moreTomcat Jowls in Male Cats